Items of interest to beekeepers 22 July 2018

Fran Bach, (former) Western Apicultural Society Journal and Washington State Beekeepers newsletter editor










IT’S ALMOST BOISE TIME! WAS CONFERENCE 2018! On behalf of the Western Apicultural Society, we’re looking forward to welcoming Conference attendees to Boise, Idaho, AUGUST 3 – 5! If this is your first visit to the City of Bees (officially known as the “City of Trees”), you’ll be in the right place and at the right time.  If you’ve been here before, you know what a wonderful community we have.  We’re pleased that all of you are joining us for this wonderful event, the 41st Western Apicultural Society Annual Conference. We have a stellar line-up joining us in Boise, complete with Jennifer Berry, Randy Oliver, Dewey Caron, Jerry Hayes, Jerry Bromenshenk, Sarah Red-Laird, Jamie Strange, Ramesh Sagilli, Ellen Topitzhofer, plus two very talented locals in Melinda Jean Stafford, and Ron Bitner.  Each of our speakers is an expert in their own right.  The beauty of the WAS Annual Conference is that you will find that there will be plenty of opportunities here to visit one-on-one with these whizzes, allowing you to explore your questions in detail.  You are part of an opportunity that is certainly hard to match at larger events across the country. Our conference is being held at the brand, spanking new and highly eclectic Jack’s Urban Meeting Place.  JUMP is the Simplot family’s contribution to Boise in the spirit of Jack Simplot, the late, family patriarch.  The purpose of this fantastic facility is help unleash our creative sides and to “expand our lives, enrich our communities, and push the human story forward.”  In addition to this superb venue in the heart of town, right here on-site you will discover a large, on-site antique tractor collection and a five story spiral slide that’s open to all.  You just don’t find venues very often that offer slides like these. In the past few weeks, summer has triumphantly arrived in Boise, and by all accounts we anticipate the season’s pleasant, warm weather will continue through the Conference.  Daytime temperatures are typically in the 90’s and the night times in the 70’s and 80’s, all with relatively low humidity. When you get a few spare minutes, break out your walking and/or jogging shoes and explore our Boise River Greenbelt, a riverside pathway extending miles up, and down the river from downtown Boise.  From the Conference center, the Greenbelt is a mere three blocks away and offers a wonderful break, especially in the early mornings.  For you early risers, be sure to set aside a little time early Saturday morning and check out our two Farmers’ Markets, which are within blocks of JUMP.  Another opportunity that is unique to Boise is the Basque Museum & Cultural Center, the only Basque museum in the US and just blocks from JUMP. If you have time after the conference to explore the area, take time to explore the Snake River Winery region, a short drive southwest of Boise.  Other opportunities in the area include the checking out the World Center for Birds of Prey just south of town, or a trip up to Bogus Basin, our local ski area, for a day of mountain biking the ski slopes and an opportunity to ride the nearly one-mile Glade Runner Mountain Coaster.  After hours, be sure to pull out your phone and take a hike on the brand new “Boise’s Ale Trail.” The app is free at both Google Play and the iOS App Store. We are happy to have you join us in Boise for the 41st WAS Annual Conference.  The weather will be great, our top-notch speakers will provide state of the art information, they will generally be accessible for one-on-one follow-up during your time at the Conference, and the eclectic JUMP venue is sure to make this a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to expand your beekeeping horizons. All details and registration form at WAS Up! Walk-ins welcome! Steve Sweet, President —– BEE TOES By Dan Wyns, Bee Informed Partnership Honey bees have had a close relationship with humans for thousands of years and have been intensively studied and observed by both scientists and beekeepers. Despite the accumulation of knowledge and ever increasing understanding of bee behavior, there are still a number of mysteries that bees guard. One of these behaviors that is yet to be thoroughly understood is called festooning. If you have ever been in a hive and noticed the bees seem clingy and hang from or between frames in chains, you have seen festooning. It is not currently known why bees exhibit festooning behavior. There is general agreement, however, that the behavior is associated with wax production and is most commonly seen in the spring when comb is being drawn or repaired. One thought is that the bees cling to each other tightly to increase temperature and facilitate secretion of wax from glands on the underside of the abdomen. Another thought is that the bees are using their bodies as a sort of measuring device to assist in comb orientation and maintain the appropriate bee space critical to comb architecture. There is also a thought that festooning allows the bees to create a living scaffold or bridge in open space to aid the construction process. While the ‘why’ of festooning isn’t entirely clear, the ‘how’ can be observed by working slowly through a colony and gently separating frames resulting in lattices and chains of bees between adjacent combs. As these chains are stretched to several bees in length, it becomes evident that they are using their toes to hold onto each other and capable of quite a bit of contortion so long as they remain hooked to other bees. The ‘toes’ that cling to each other are technically tarsal claws, the last segments of the end of each leg. Each of the six legs terminates in a pair of claws that together with the other structures of the lower leg provide a great deal of dexterity. In addition to hanging onto comb and other bees during festooning, tarsal claws allow bees to grip a variety of surfaces and textures which is particularly useful when foraging. Tarsal claws also allow bees to attach themselves to each other when hanging in a swarm or bearding in excessively hot or humid conditions. This previous post by my coworker Rob Snyder provides further explanation of the anatomy and functions of the lower legs and shows several examples of tarsal claws in a variety of bee species. Having spent a dozen years working with bees, I have gained a decent understanding of many of their actions.  Nevertheless, I’m glad that the bees still keep a few secrets to themselves. I always consider festooning a sign of spring and abundant resources in the environment that allow for colony growth and comb construction. In addition to being a general sign of good colony health, festooning is aesthetically pleasing. Every time I see it, I can’t help but think the bees are putting on a bit of a gymnastic display. —– USDA DISASTER RECOVERY ASSISTANCE APPLICATIONS NOW OPEN Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue announced Monday that farmers and ranchers who suffered damage from hurricanes and wildfires in 2017 may now apply for recovery assistance. Sign up opened July 16, 2018 and will remain open through mid-November. According to a USDA press statement, if funds are still available, more payments may be issued later in the year. This program was authorized by Congress earlier this year by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 and is called the 2017 Wildfires and Hurricane Indemnity Program, or 2017 WHIP. “Hurricanes and wildfires caused billions of dollars in losses to America’s farmers last year. Our objective is to get relief funds into the hands of eligible producers as quickly as possible,” said Secretary Perdue. “We are making immediate, initial payments of up to 50% of the calculated assistance so producers can pay their bills.” Eligibility For hurricane victims to be eligible, damaged crops, trees, bushes, or vines must be in a county declared in a Presidential Emergency Disaster Declaration or Secretarial Disaster Designation as a primary county. That list is available here through the FSA. It includes parts of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas. Losses in counties not designated as a primary county may be eligible if the producer provides documentation showing that the loss was due to a hurricane in 2017. Wildfire losses will be evaluated on an individual basis. Eligibility is determined by FSA county committees. Losses due to excessive rain, high winds, flooding, mudslides, fire, and heavy smoke from last year’s wildfires and hurricanes could qualify for assistance through this program. For the most part, 2017 WHIP is designed to assist in situations of production loss, but if quality was taken into consideration under the insurance or Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) policy, where production was further adjusted, the adjusted production will be used in calculating assistance for this program, USDA explains. Crops for which federal crop insurance or NAP coverage is available are eligible for 2017 WHIP, except for crops intended for grazing. The list of crops covered by crop insurance is available here through the USDA’s Actuarial Information Browser. Or paste this into your browser: “Both insured and uninsured producers are eligible to apply for 2017 WHIP. However, all producers receiving 2017 WHIP payments will be required to purchase crop insurance and/or NAP, at the 60% coverage level or higher, for the next two available crop years to meet statutory requirements. Producers who fail to purchase crop insurance for the next two applicable years will be required to pay back the 2017 WHIP payment,” the USDA press statement says. Payment Calculation and Limits The FSA website explains, “USDA is determining compensation by a producer’s individual losses rather than an average of losses in the area.” In order to do this, the size of the loss and the level of insurance coverage elected by the producer will be taken into account. The producer’s coverage level will be used to determine a WHIP factor. Farmers and ranchers who chose higher coverage levels will receive higher WHIP factors. 2017 WHIP payment factors range from 65% to 95%. Producers who did not insure their 2017 crops will receive 65% of the expected crop value. Insured producers will receive between 70% and 95% of expected value. After the WHIP factor is determined it will be multiplied by the expected value of the crop. Then value of the crop harvested, and insurance indemnity will be subtracted to determine final payment amount. Payments to each eligible producer will be limited to either $125,000 or $900,000 depending on their verified average adjusted gross income. Tax years 2013, 2014, and 2015 will be used to calculate average. If less than 75% of the person or legal entity’s average adjusted gross income is average adjusted gross farm income the payment limit is $125,000. In other words, if more than 25% of a person’s income comes from off farm sources, they may be subject to the $125,000 payment limit. If 75% or more of the average adjusted gross income of the person or legal entity is average adjusted gross farm income the payment limit $900,000. Put another way, if a person makes less than 25% of their income from off farm sources, they may be eligible for payments up to $900,000. Application Process Farmers who have not established farm records with their local USDA service center are encouraged to start the application process as soon as possible. To begin, bring proof of identity such as a driver’s license or Social Security card, along with a copy of the recorder deed, survey plat, rental, or lease agreement of the land. Note, you do not have to own the land to participate in FSA programs. Entities should bring corporation, estate or trust documents as well. Once the process is underway, producers will need to provide verifiable production records by crop, type, practice, intended use, and acres for the last five years. If you already have this information on file with USDA, you will not need to provide it again. If you are unable to provide production records, the USDA will calculate the yield based on 65% of county expected yield. Other Disaster Assistance Programs USDA offers several other programs for farmers and ranchers impacted by natural disasters. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 also provided funding for the Emergency Conservation Program and the Emergency Watershed Protection Program. It also updated the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees and Farm-raised Fish Program, Tree Assistance Program and Livestock Indemnity Program. For more information on FSA disaster assistance programs, contact your local USDA service center or visit —– URBAN GARDENS CAN AID IN POLLINATOR CONSERVATION A recent study conducted by University of Kentucky Department of Entomology researchers found that monarch butterflies and various bee species quickly find and use milkweeds in small urban gardens. They showed that monarchs and bees have preferences for the type and size of the plants. “Our goal was to demonstrate to gardeners and homeowners that they can participate in meaningful pollinator conservation in their own backyard,” said Adam Baker, UK graduate student in the College of the Agriculture, Food and Environment. Since scientists began monitoring the eastern migratory population of monarchs in the 1990s, their numbers have declined by more than 80 percent. Monarch population decline has been attributed to the loss of milkweed host plants from the primary breeding grounds. Habitat loss due to agriculture and urbanization has also led to a decline in wild bees and other pollinators. Baker and Daniel Potter, UK entomology professor, examined ways milkweed, which is the monarch’s only food source, can be successfully reincorporated into urban gardens. The study looked at the egg laying and feeding preferences of monarchs and visits by bees on eight milkweed species in small gardens located at The Arboretum and other areas throughout Lexington during 2016 and 2017. “To our knowledge, this is the first study that compares monarch colonization and performance on different milkweed species in a common garden,” Potter said. The UK researchers found monarch eggs and larvae on all eight milkweed species during both growing seasons. Monarch caterpillars were found on the plants just two weeks after the seedlings had been transplanted. All eight species also supported larval survival and development. Monarchs were more attracted to the taller milkweed species with broad leaves, which include swamp milkweed, common milkweed and showy milkweed. Common and showy milkweeds had the highest numbers of monarch eggs. Six of the eight milkweeds produced enough flowers to attract bees. Butterflyweed and narrowleaf milkweed were the most attractive to bees. Researchers also found bees on common milkweed, whorled milkweed and swamp milkweed. Showy milkweed attracted smaller numbers of bees. Butterflyweed, whorled milkweed and narrowleaf milkweed had the most bee diversity. UK researchers also studied each milkweed species ability to be incorporated into a small garden as some plants tend to spread from their original boundaries. Species that tend to stay where they are planted include swamp milkweed, butterflyweed and spider milkweed. These would work well when space is limited. Species including common milkweed, showy milkweed, narrowleaf milkweed and whorled milkweed tend to spread and are better suited for larger plantings. Baker and Potter’s study was recently published in The Journal of Insect Conservation and is available online at —– From Sarah Red-Laird, Bee Girl /Organization – HIVE TO TABLE FUND-RAISING DINNER EVENT FOR BEES AND THE BEE GIRL ORGANIZATION ​Saturday, July 28th, 6:30pm, Ashland Community Center, 59 Windburn Way, Ashland, Oregon Tickets on Sale Now at On Saturday, July 28th at 6:30 pm, Farm Chef Kristen Lyon and Sarah Red-Laird, a.k.a., Bee Girl, invite you to join us for a sweet feast at the Historic Ashland Community Center in Ashland, Oregon!  Our multicourse dinner will be created in the “farm to table” style, featuring food from local farmers, with Bee Girl Honey woven through every course. Attendees will also be treated to live music by Jeff Kloetzel & Bob Evoniuk, beer, wine, and mead, and a silent auction.   Join us for this sweet community event and give back to the organization who works hard to keep your bees and flowers thriving in Southern Oregon and “beeyond.” This event is a fundraiser for the Bee Girl organization, a nonprofit with a mission to inspire and empower communities to conserve bees, their flowers, and our food. Hive to Table Menu ​ We are proud to feature Port Orford Sustainable Seafood in our appetizer and main course. Appies – Red Rockfish Cakes with Sauteed Garden Veggies and Fresh Dill Saffron Aioli; Honey Pickled Cucumber Mint Salsa in Tortilla Bites; Rogue Creamery Cheese with Plum and Sage Chutney and Crystalized Honey on Toasts Salad Course- Sesame Massaged Chard and Braised Cabbage Salad with Honey Ginger Pickled Shiitakes, Scallions, Shaved Romaine and Cucumber. Crumbled Cheese and Pepitos on each table. Main Course – Honey Lime Grilled Halibut; Coconut Rice with Rainbow Mire Poix; Grilled Zucchini Spears with Basil Honey Butter; Grilled Baguette and Crostini will be served at each table. Dessert Course – Stone Fruit Upside Down Cake with Candied Rosemary and Bourbon Honey Whipped Cream Vegan and Vegetarian Entrees will be available if pre-ordered. Menu items, especially veggies, are subject to change based upon seasonal availability. Live Auction Packages – Treat Yourself!   Honey Powered Athlete – This auction package will feature Honey Stinger products to fuel your athletic adventures, and deck yourself out in hexagon swag.  Rouge Valley Runners will gift you an entrance to a race for your honey powered self to dominate.  And Snikwah Motorwerks will provide you with a roof rack to transport your gear to your next adventure.   Sweet Ashland Staycation – Enjoy two whole nights in Molly’s “Glampground” for a home away from home staycation.  Sit on the deck and enjoy a bottle of award winning Slagle Creek wine before you head downtown for dinner and a show at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival!  When you wake up the next morning, sip Case Coffee with Bee Girl Honey while you contemplate how sweet our little town is. Healing with the Honey Bee Hive – A hive in the backyard is like having a personal pharmacy.  Winners of this package will take home a bounty of Medicine Mama’s Apothecary “Sweet Bee” products, Bee Girl Honey, Bee Girl Pollen, and Bee Girl Propolis.  Heighten your healing with a 60-minute massage from Bee Girl Beekeeping Course student, and truly gifted osteopathic massage therapist, Holly Hutchison.  Continue you selfcare with a 90-minute massage from bee lover and Bee Girl supporter and volunteer, Eva Ford, a brilliant healer specializing in Swedish massage, myofascial release, and neuromuscular therapy.     Bee Girl’s Favorite Things – The winner of this package will walk away with a few of Bee Girl Sarah’s favorite things:  Bee Amour jewelry, “Give Bees a Chance” Modsocks, and a jar of Bee Girl Honey.   For the winner and up to five of their friends this package also features a tour of the inside of a bee hive with Bee Girl founder and executive director, Sarah Red-Laird!  (She’ll provide the beekeeping suits) On the same day you’ll also be treated to a honey tasting for your group – hosted by Sarah with honeys from her rare international collection.         —– From Sharon Schmidt, Cascade Girl Organization – OREGON HONEY FESTIVAL AUGUST 18-19 Save the Bees!  This year The Oregon Honey Festival hosts a variety of educators, exhibitors and events for Bee Weekend in Ashland, August 18 and 19th. The weekend starts with the “Beekeeper Breakfast” at the Ashland Springs Hotel Crystal Room in downtown Ashland at 212 E. Main St. Starting at 9AM, it is open to the public. Advance tickets are required for this event so purchase by August 10, please. You don’t have to be a Beekeeper to attend!  Food for the event is prepared by Larks Chef Franco (Food description available on the Eventbrite site listed here). At the Breakfast, Dr. Andony Melathopoulos, the director of the Oregon Bee Project will update us on Bee Health and Amina Harris, Director of the UC Davis Honey and Pollination Center will show participants how to taste Honey. Tickets for this event are available at: The Honey Festival runs from 11 AM until 5 PM on Saturday, August 18 at the Ashland Elks Lodge at 255 E Main St., across the way from the Ashland Springs Hotel. Festival attendees will have the opportunity to meet Beekeepers and other Artisans, taste and buy honey and local mead and to taste cheeses from Rogue Creamery, bread from Rise Up! Bakery, Dagoba Chocolate and other delights.  Kids 8 and under are admitted free with a parent.  Tickets for this event are available at the door or in advance at The Native American Lakota Youth Development Project has started a Beekeeping Project benefitting Next-Gen Youth Beekeepers who are active in every aspect of Honey Bee husbandry, land management and marketing.  These young Entrepreneurs are coming all the way from Herrick, South Dakota to present at the Festival.  The 15 person group will tell us about their cultural approach to beekeeping and the environment as well as demonstrate native dance and song. Lakota Youth will bring their honey to the Festival and also perform Native American dance unique to each performer in the Plaza around noon on Saturday. On Sunday, August 19, Jen Ambrose and Annieville perform love songs at Grizzly Peak Winery at 1600 E. Nevada St., Ashland.  Festival goers may also try local meads!  Proceeds also support Pollinator Education and Conservation.  Bee-Loved Concert tickets are available at: The Oregon Honey Festival, Beekeeper Breakfast and Bee-loved Concert is produced by the Cascade Girl Organization in partnership with the Klamath Basin Beekeepers Association. Proceeds fund Pollinator conservation and Education.  Major supporters of the Festival include GloryBee Foods, Rogue Regency Inn, Shastina Millworks, Posh Organics, Nectar Creek and Human Bean. —– GOOD FOOD AWARDS 9TH YEAR –  ENTRIES JULY 2 – 31 The Good Food Awards invites food producers from across the country to submit their beer, charcuterie, cheese, chocolate, cider, coffee, confections, elixirs, honey, oils, pickles, preserves, preserved fish, spirits, pantry items and – new this year  – snacks! (Snacks, you ask? We’re talking popcorn, granola, chips, crackers and more!) A blind tasting with a judge panel composed of over 250 food crafters, chefs and food writers will determine which products become the 2019 Good Food Award Winners. The catch: everything must be produced with a commitment to environmental and social responsibility, supporting local economies and the planet. A short online entry form will be available at from July 2-31. The products will be sent for judging in September.  The entry fee is $75, which covers the cost of processing, sorting, storing and transporting over 2,000 anticipated entries. Submission Criteria for the Honey Category can be found at this link: Want a free entry? Become part of our network of tasty, authentic and responsible businesses, by joining the Good Food Guild. The Guild unites mission-driven craft food businesses, and provides a number of benefits, including an invitation to participate in the Good Food Mercantile in San Francisco and New York. To learn more, visit All winners will be honored at a gala awards ceremony with food movement pioneers like Alice Waters, Madhur Jaffrey, Carlo Petrini and Winona LaDuke, sell their wares at the 5,000-person Good Food Awards Marketplace, and proudly display the Good Food Awards Seal all year long. Last year’s 199 winners also received some wonderful and well deserved media attention, with coverage in 79 outlets, including Boston Globe, The Salt Lake Tribune and Heritage Radio Network. —– From Dr. Christina Grozinger at POLLINATOR-L – Bee JOBS 1. Two postdocs on buzz pollination, University of Stirling, UK Two postdoc positions to study buzz pollination available at U. Stirling for 3-year project funded by Leverhulme Trust. Each postdoc will specialise in either flower or bee perspectives on buzz pollination. Application deadline 15 August. For more information see:  Please email if you have any questions: 2. The Woodard and Yamanaka Labs in the Department of Entomology at the University of California, Riverside are seeking to recruit a postdoctoral researcher to study bumble bee larval development. The postdoc will use a variety of molecular methods (including but not limited to RNAseq and RNAi) to explore the proximate factors that control caste and body size determination in bumble bees. The project is supported the National Institutes of Food and Agriculture, the US-Israel Agricultural Research and Development Fund, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation. The position will be located in Riverside, CA and the postdoc will also work with collaborator Guy Bloch at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, with opportunities to travel to Israel for training and research. All appointments are initially for one year and renewable based on performance. Salaries are commensurate with experience and based on minimums set by the University of California postdoctoral union. Additional support is available for conference and other travel. Start date is Fall 2018. Information on benefits is available at The application deadline is September 1st, 2018. For more information, visit the Woodard Lab ( and Yamanaka Lab ( websites, and please email Hollis Woodard (hollis.woodard@ucr) with any additional questions. 3. Postdoctoral or Research Associate Position in genomics and bioinformatics, York University, Toronto, Canada. The honey bee lab ( at York University’s Dept. of Biology (Toronto, Canada) has a position available for a postdoctoral fellow or research associate with demonstrable expertise in genomics and bioinformatics starting September 2018. We are particularly seeking individuals that have experiences in genome wide association studies. The successful candidate will participate in the ‘BeeOMICs’ project – a large-scale association study of honey bees comprised of over one thousand colony ‘genomes’ and many colony-level phenotypes. Qualified candidates are encouraged to submit a cover letter outlining their expertise, a CV, reprints of relevant papers, and contact information for 3 referees to before August 25th. Compensation commensurate with experience. 4. PhD student lab assistant, University of Florida I am recruiting a PhD student to join my lab at the University of Florida starting as soon as spring semester 2019 (January 2019). The assistantship is fully funded, including tuition, stipend, and benefits for the duration of the PhD program. The student will conduct research on blueberry pollination ecology in collaboration with the Blueberry Breeding and Genomics Lab at UF, pursuing research questions of mutual interest such as investigating variation in pollinator visitation across blueberry genotypes, determining the role of floral traits in mediating pollinator attraction, and evaluating factors that influence pollination success including farm size, farm management, or pollinator behavior. Interested students should apply by sending a cover letter, resume or CV, and names and contact information for 3 references to Dr. Rachel Mallinger at Please visit the lab website’s job opportunities page ( for more information and contact me with any questions. I would appreciate you sharing this opportunity with your students, lab members, and anyone interested in the position. 5. Lab Manager/Human Research Technologist with the Augmented and Mobile Learning Research (AMLR) Group, Penn State College of Education See for information. (Note that this project will likely involve working with pollinator gardens and pollinator education.) —– From Bryan Ashurst, CSBA Research Committee Chair – REQUEST FOR RESEARCH PROPOSALS FOR THE 2019 SEASON The California State Beekeepers’ Association (CSBA) is seeking proposals for research conducted on honey bees. All proposals and preferable projects are designed to cover a single year of highly focused research devoted to finding practical solutions to beekeeping problems. 2019 Priorities This year, funding will again be provided for projects addressing the following priorities: • Novel and viable options for varroa mite management. Management strategies should be effective in reducing the number of mites below a threshold damaging to the colony, be safe for the honey bees, should not contaminate hive products, and should be effective in a wide range of environmental conditions. Preferably they should be low-cost and not too labor-intensive. • Quality and health of reproductive castes continue to be an issue for beekeepers. Having a better understanding of what impacts queen and drone reproductive health and devising effective solutions for these problems is also considered a high priority for CSBA. • Proper Nutrition.; access to plentiful and diverse foraging opportunities or availability of an optimal artificial diet. Projects under this priority should address development of a complete diet for honey bees that would be economically feasible for beekeepers and would help colonies not only survive but thrive. Sensible solutions for improving access to natural forage will also be reviewed. • Additional honey bee stressors will be considered as long as they directly propose practical and immediate solutions for beekeepers. Proposal needs to include: • Title of the proposal • Principal investigator(s) name(s) and contact information • Statement of which Priority is being addressed with the proposed project • Brief introduction and significance of the problem • Objective(s) of the study • Detailed experimental approach to allow for critical evaluation of feasibility • References • Detailed budget Proposals should not exceed five pages, excluding references. Financial assistance for travel to the 2019 CSBA convention should be included in the budget. There is an expectation of an oral presentation of the project findings at the November 2019 convention which will be held at Pechanga Resort and Casino in Temecula, CA. Please note that as a non-profit, commodity-based organization, CSBA does not pay over-head/indirect costs on funded research grants. The Research Committee of the CSBA meets in conjunction with the Annual Convention, which this year is being held November 13-15 at Harrah’s Southern California in Temecula, CA. To allow for sufficient time for committee members to read and prioritize the proposals, they must be e-mailed in a PDF format to Karli Quinn (, no later than Friday, October 12th, 2018. A rolling deadline will be granted to proposals with approval from the board. Notice of award will be sent to the listed Principal Investigators within 30 days from the end of the Annual Convention. —– CATCH THE BUZZ 1. Exposure of Hummingbirds and Bumble Bees to Pesticides – New research reveals that hummingbirds and bumble bees are being exposed to neonicotinoid and other pesticides through routes that are widespread and complex. The findings are published in Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry. To measure exposure to pesticides in these avian pollinators, investigators made novel use of cloacal fluid and fecal pellets from hummingbirds living near blueberry fields in British Columbia. They also collected bumble bees native to Canada, and their pollen, and blueberry leaves and flowers from within conventionally sprayed and organic blueberry farms. The researchers detected pesticides and related compounds in cloacal fluid and fecal pellets of hummingbirds revealing for the first time that hummingbirds are exposed to and accumulate pesticide exposures of multiple types. In addition, bumble bees, their pollen, and blueberry flowers contained pesticides, with the highest concentration of the insecticide imidacloprid in pollen from organic farms. 2. Man-Made Disturbances to Habitats are Creating Problems for Pollinator Communities, Including Significant Biodiversity Loss – If you’re moving pollen from one plant to another, you might be a pollinator. Pollinators come in all shapes and sizes: butterflies, beetles, birds, bats and even humans. The only job requirement is that they transfer pollen from stamen to pistil (a flowering plant’s male and female organs). As pollinators visit flowers to drink nectar or feed on pollen, they move pollen from flower to flower and help plants reproduce. Pollination is an ecological service — a role an organism plays in its ecosystem that is essential to human life . Bees are some of the most important crop pollinators. They increase production of about 75 percent of our crop species. When we think of bees, we tend to think of fat, fuzzy, black and yellow insects buzzing around the flowers in our garden. But fuzzy bumblebees don’t have a monopoly on ensuring that flowers bloom again and blossoms turn into fruit. Across North America alone, there are more than 4,000 wild bee species of all shapes and sizes, from the fluffy bronze Tetraloniella davidsoni to the iridescent emerald Agapostemon texanus. Researchers have found that this staggering biodiversity — besides making our gardens and countryside beautiful — is critical for many types of ecological services, including pollination.